Disable windows automatic restart in Windows 10, the new way

So, Microsoft decided to change things a bit on how this can be done. To make a long story short, this is no longer inside “Advanced options” But rather in a different link names “Restart Options” on that same page

So open your settings app, then visit Updates and security, then windows update, then restart options (And active hours if needed)

Now, You can move your update hours to your weekend if that need to be the time for restarts

Force mount hibernated NTFS volume

This problem is one i face often, because of how older versions functioned, the answers online no longer apply, online, you will find that

ntfsfix /dev/sdc2

should do the trick, in reality, it will not as you will see the following error

Mounting volume... OK
Processing of $MFT and $MFTMirr completed successfully.
Checking the alternate boot sector... OK
NTFS volume version is 3.1.
NTFS partition /dev/sdc1 was processed successfully.

The solution in reality is asking ntfs-3g’s mount to remove the hiberfile

WHAT YOU NEED – YOU WILL LOSE THE HIBERFILE

mount -t ntfs-3g -o remove_hiberfile /dev/sdc2 /hds/intelssd

Without the remove_hiberfile instruction, you will probably get an error message such as

Windows is hibernated, refused to mount.
Failed to mount '/dev/sdc2': Operation not permitted
The NTFS partition is in an unsafe state. Please resume and shutdown
Windows fully (no hibernation or fast restarting), or mount the volume
read-only with the 'ro' mount option.

Where you can actually mount it as read only if you do not want to write to it with the line

 mount -o ro /dev/sdc1 /hds/intelssd

ufw – the 2 minute guide

apt-get install ufw

ufw allow ssh

but what do you know, i got an error

ERROR: initcaps
[Errno 2] modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'ip6_tables': Unknown symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)
ip6tables v1.4.21: can't initialize ip6tables table `filter': Table does not exist (do you need to insmod?)
Perhaps ip6tables or your kernel needs to be upgraded.

Well, that was not so nice, so i went into the file /etc/default/ufw and disabled IPv6, and now it works

So, before we enable it, i enabled SSH access otherwise i will be locked out

ufw allow ssh

now, enable it with

ufw enable

Now, enabled a few more ports for SIP for example

ZOIPER setup for a SIP account

Basically I need to give a friend of mine who is traveling a VOIP account of a special kind, So to make his experience as simple as possible, I took screenshots of the setup process, but generalized them enough for anyone who wants to setup a SIP account on zoiper.

Step1 : Install zoiper from the google play store, here is a link Install Zoiper , any other SIP CLIENT will do, but this one is the one i made the instructions for.

HINT: From here on, Just look at the pictures, no need to read all this text unless you need to know more things

Step 2: Open zoiper, then go to the config panel, then to accounts.

d1

Step 3: Click the “add account” to add an account to zoiper

d2

Step 4: When asked if you already have a VOIP account, Answer with YES

d3

Step 5: When asked if you want to configure manually, or select a provider, You would want to go with the manual configuration.

d4

Step 6: Now you need to set the account type, zoiper supports both SIP (Session Initiation protocol) which is more or less both a good standard and the defector standard in VOIP, this is the one we want, the other is called IAX (Inter Asterisk Exchange) which is specific to Asterisk, an open source VOIP system

d5

Step 7: Now, we need to give zoiper some settings to know where and how to connect, This data was given to you by your provider,

Account name: Any name you want, for example, the name of the provider, or how you use this account, you can call it my NY number, or TheTech, or any other name you want to use to identify this account

Host: The address of the server, this can be something like voip.example.com or example.com, any internet address whether FQDN or IP address should do.

Username: Self explanatory really
Password: Also self explanatory

d6

Exposing visitor IP to apache through varnish

In a previous post, i posted how you can put varnish on a virtual machine to cache content for your web server, But there was one small thing that we did not deal with, The IP address in the logs and that the website can see is simply that of the varnish server, not the visitor’s IP, and if you write PHP like me, I use the IP in everything, from securing logins to limiting page views to limiting comments. So, here is how we can work around this problem

First, the mission is as follows, Varnish needs to append something in the request header, that apache needs to consider the Visitor’s IP

To make apache do that, there is already a module (mod-remoteip) to do this

1- Tool to check the IP of the visitor

Create a PHP script to find out if what we are doing actually worked.

<?php
print "Your IP is: {$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR']} <br />\n\n";
$headers = apache_request_headers();
foreach($headers as $xheader => $xvalue)
{
print "$xheader : $xvalue <br />\n"; }
?>

and upload it to the website, when accessing this from the internet, you should see the IP as the IP of the varnish server, not your IP (Like it should)

1- Playing with cpanel

First, we must download mod_remoteip from the cpanel website (See here)

Once downloaded, we will upload it to the cpanel server at

/var/cpanel/easy/apache/custom_opt_mods/

Once done, we will now extract it as we would extract any tar.gz file

cd /var/cpanel/easy/apache/custom_opt_mods
tar -C /var/cpanel/easy/apache/custom_opt_mods -xvf custom_opt_mod-remoteip.tgz

Now, this mod should appear in easy apache when rebuilding apache, so go ahead, visit

Home »Software »EasyApache 3

and on the Exhaustive Options List you should be able to see mod_remoteip, be sure to check it.

Now, before coming to configure it, We need to inform Varnish to send us those headers. So add this at the very beginning of the Varnish sub vcl_recv section

NOTE: It seems that for the latest varnish (VCL 4), you no longer need this, if you add this, you will get the header as ( X-Forwarded-For : xxx.105.60.194, xxx.105.60.194) meaning the same IP twice

if (req.restarts == 0) {
  if (req.http.X-Forwarded-For) {
    set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = req.http.X-Forwarded-For + ", " + client.ip;
  } else {
    set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;
  }
}

Now, we need to tell apache, what the extra header’s name is (X-Forwarded-For) and what servers this header should be honored for (the varnish server IPs, currently displaying in the script we wrote right after Your IP is:) So start by editing

/usr/local/apache/conf/includes/pre_virtualhost_global.conf

And add this, the IP here is the varnish server IP

<IfModule mod_remoteip.c>
   RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For
   RemoteIPInternalProxy xxx.172.13.208
</IfModule>

Or, Probably the more suitable

/usr/local/apache/conf/includes/pre_virtualhost_global.conf

And add this, the IP here is the varnish server IP

<IfModule mod_remoteip.c>
   RemoteIPHeader X-Forwarded-For
   RemoteIPTrustedProxy xxx.172.13.0/24
   RemoteIPTrustedProxy xxx.172.14.0/24
   RemoteIPTrustedProxy xxx.172.19.0/24
</IfModule>

Now, visit Home >> Restart Services on your cpanel server, and restart apache

There you have it, refresh that PHP script, and your IP address should appear.

Now, the apache logs will still log the Varnish server IP, to fix that, you need to modify the log section in your apache config, changing %h with %a, like so

#LogFormat "%h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%a %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined

restoring lost tabs in firefox

Every once in a while (often), something happens and the “Restore session” option in firefox disappears (right now it is june 2016), usually this happens after a crash where i try to re open firefox early or when computer hangs then i do something stupid, if you just opened firefox, keep it open, then go to C:\Users\techg\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles\8xve5flx.default (Or whatever your profile folder is named), and WITH YOUR FIREFOX STILL OPEN, copy the file sessionstore.js (back it up), Now close firefox, your original might have reset to a small file size as soon as you close firefox, Now, the tabs are all stored in sessionstore.js.bak (or whatever you called the copy), so delete the one you have, and copy this file back in it’s place.

With that done, it is editing time

The bad copy starts like this

{"version":["sessionrestore",1],"windows":[{"tabs":[{"entries":[{"url":"about:home","title":"Mozilla Firefox Start Page","charset":"","ID":716087720,"docshellID":11510,"docIdentifier":13,"persist":true}],"lastAccessed":1465298115431,"hidden":false,"attributes":{},"userContextId":0,"index":1,"image":"chrome://branding/content/icon32.png"}],

delete some text (“version”:[“sessionrestore”,1],) to make it look like this

{"windows":[{"tabs":[{"entries":[{"url":"about:home","title":"Mozilla Firefox Start Page","charset":"","ID":716087720,"docshellID":11510,"docIdentifier":13,"persist":true}],"lastAccessed":1465298115431,"hidden":false,"attributes":{},"userContextId":0,"index":1,"image":"chrome://branding/content/icon32.png"}],

Now, open your firefox browser, and you should see the restore button come back up.

Mounting a multipart vmdk disk on Linux

There are many ways to do that, one of which is using the tools provided by vmware to combine the disks into one and then mounting it with

kpartx -av mydisk.vmdk;

Then

mount -o /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /hds/disk

While another method, which is simpler

apt-get install qemu-utils
qemu-img convert disk-s001.vmdk s01.raw
....
qemu-img convert disk-s013.vmdk s13.raw
....
qemu-img convert disk-s032.vmdk s32.raw

The above will be sparse files, so you will not have disk usage as big as the file, a “df -h” should not result in any lost of disk space beyond the data that is used by files in the image

following the above, we need to combine the RAW files like so

cat s01.raw s02.raw s03.raw s04.raw s05.raw s06.raw s07.raw s08.raw s09.raw s10.raw s11.raw s12.raw s13.raw s14.raw s15.raw s16.raw s17.raw s18.raw s19.raw s20.raw s21.raw s22.raw s23.raw s24.raw s25.raw s26.raw s27.raw s28.raw s29.raw s30.raw s31.raw s32.raw > combined.raw
losetup /dev/loop0 combined.raw
kpartx -a /dev/loop0
mount /dev/mapper/loop0p1 /hds/img1

Review of the Seagate ST8000DM002 8TB 7200rpm desktop hard drive

This is not a review in the sense that it explores the drive in every possible aspect, this is better seen as a user review.

I got this drive on 2016-04-06 (6th of april), the first thing that catches your eye about this drive is that every inch of the space a regular hard drive uses (that empty area under the disk) is used, as a consequence, there is no middle screw hole, only in the back and in the front, a bit of a problem for many computer and NAS cases that rely on that hole to fasten the drive in place.

So, formatting the system into ext4 and copying files onto it, the drive seems very fast, how fast exactly remains to be seen in the coming few hours as i can only run the test after ext4lazyinit completes and finalizes the ext4 partition. I also enabled lazy write-back and removed the journal (tune2fs -O ^has_journal /dev/sdb1)

Now, let us take a better look at some parameters that were given to us by seagate

This is not the SMR (Shingled magnetic recording) disk, this is a proper hard drive meant to run as your desktop’s hard drive, the hard drive features 6  1.33TB plates, which is very high density compared to any disk on the market.

Price per gigabyte at the time of writing on this drive is 4 cents, that is pretty good for a desktop hard drive (The archive drive costs less per GB, but is much less of a performer), the archiving drive, with the SMR needs to delete neighbouring bytes and rewrite them whenever it needs to update a certain byte, so it suffers in performance, not to mention that other things are designed with this in mind too.

Using cloud linux

Basically, CloudLinux sets limits on hosting accounts, here is what you need

1- Remove limits for a certain user
lvectl set-user techg –unlimited

2- Restore all limits to defaults
lvectl apply all
Or
lvectl delete-user techg

3- Increase speed of website to use 3 cores
lvectl set-user techg –speed=300%

Change the defaults
lvectl set default –speed=100% –pmem=2048m